Saturday, 30 November 2013

Less than complete skull (with or without some of the rest)

Complete skull(s)

Complete skeletons

Friday, 29 November 2013

Tupuxuara

Tupuxuara is a crested and toothless genus of pterosaur from the Early Cretaceous of Brazil. Three species have been recognized, all from the same Santana Formation: T. longicristatus, T. leonardii and T. deliradamus. Females and males have slightly different crest indicating sexual dimorphism and is a mark of adulthood as juveniles are crestless (Martill & Naish, 2006). Tupuxuara, judging by the wing wing proportions and the general environment where it lived, as well as the lack of any adaptations to piscivory, was most likely a terrestrial generalist, much like other azhdarchids and modern secretary birds and seriemas.

I
Name
Tupuxuara longicristatus
Authority
Kellner & Campos, 1988
Meaning of generic name
"Familiar spirit" — A name in Tupi Indian mythology

[or perhaps rather magic]
Meaning of specific name
long crested
Size
[not given]
Remains
Partial skeleton.
Age and Distribution
Romualdo Member, Santana Formation (Early Cretaceous, Albian) Ceará, Brazil.
Classification
Pterosauria Pterodactyloidea Azhdarchoidea
Further Reading
Kellner, A. W. A. & Campos, D. A. 1988, Sobre un novo pterossauro com crista sagital da Bacia do Araripe, Cretaceo Inferior do Nordeste do Brasil. (Pterosauria, Tupuxuara, Cretaceo, Brasil) Anais de Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 60, 459–469.
II
Name
Tupuxuara leonardii
Authority
Kellner & Campos, 1994
Meaning of specific name
(in honour of) Leonardi
Size
Skull length: 900 mm, Wingspan: 4.5 m
Remains
Partial skeletons including a complete skull.
Age and Distribution
Romualdo Member, Santana Formation (Early Cretaceous, Albian) Ceará, Brazil.
Classification
Pterosauria Pterodactyloidea Azhdarchoidea
Further Reading
Kellner, A. W. A. & Campos, D. A. 1994, A new species of Tupuxuara (Pterosauria, Tapejaridae) from the Early Cretaceous of Brazil. An. Acad. Brasil. Ciênc. 66, 467–473.
III
Name
Tupuxuara deliradamus
Authority
Witton, 2009
Size
Skull length: 850 mm
Remains
Two partial skulls.
Age and Distribution
Romualdo Member, Santana Formation (Early Cretaceous, Albian) Ceará, Brazil.
Classification
Pterosauria Pterodactyloidea Azhdarchoidea
Further Reading
Witton, M.P. 2009. A new species of Tupuxuara (Thalassodromidae, Azhdarchoidea) from the Lower Cretaceous Santana Formation of Brazil, with a note on the nomenclature of Thalassodromidae. Cretaceous Research.
I - III ?
Further reference:
Martill, D. M. & Naish, D. 2006. Cranial crest development in the azhdarchoid pterosaur Tupuxuara, with a review of the genus and tapejarid monophyly. Palaeontology 49, 925-941.

Tupandactylus imperator

Tupandactylus from the Early Cretaceous of Brazil is characterized by its very large head crest made partly of bone and partly of soft tissue (keratin). It was originally described as a species of Tapejara.

Name
Tupandactylus imperator
Authority
(Campos & Kellner, 1997)
Meaning of generic name
Tupan (name of the Tupi thunder God) finger

["dactylus"="finger" stands for "pterodactylus"="wing finger" which is too long for an ending - the beginning of the word seems laden with idolatry!]
Meaning of specific name
commander-in-chief or emperor (depending on what period of Latin)
Size
Skull length: 800 mm, Wingspan: ? 2.5 m
Remains
Nearly complete skull.
Age and Distribution
Crato Member, Santana Formation (Early Cretaceous, Aptian-Albian) Ceará, Brazil.
Classification
Pterosauria Pterodactyloidea Azhdarchoidea Tapejaridae
Further Reading
Campos, D. A. & Kellner, A. W. A. 1997, Short note on the first occurrence of Tapejaridae in the Crato Member (Aptian), Santana Formation, Araripe Basin, Northeast Brazil. An. Acad. Brasil. Ciênc., 69(1): 83-87.

Kellner, A.W.A. & Campos, D.A. 2007, Short note on the ingroup relationships of the Tapejaridae (Pterosauria, Pterodactyloidea. Boletim do Museu Nacional 75: 1–14.
Synonyms
Tapejara imperator Campos & Kellner, 1997; Ingridia imperator (Campos & Kellner, 1997) Unwin & Martill, 2007
Image by Nobu Tamura (click to enlarge)
Tupandactylus imperator:

Thalassodromeus sethi

Thalassodromeus is a pterosaur from the Early Cretaceous of Brazil. It had an extraordinary large skull surmounted by a huge bony crest. The crest was irrigated by blood vessels and might have been used for body temperature regulation. The beak is similar in shape with the one of the modern skimmer (Rhynchops) and it was suggested that Thalassodromeus might have had a similar feeding strategy. However, new biomechanical studies of the neck show that its unlikely that it was a skimmer. The scizzor like jaws indicate it might had been a scavenger, or an aerial piscivore that used the jaws to grasp prey rather than skim.

Name
Thalassodromeus sethi
Authority
Kellner & Campos, 2002
Meaning of generic name
Sea runner
Size
Skull length: 1.4 m, Wingspan: 4.5 m
Remains
Nearly complete skull.
Age and Distribution
Romualdo Member, Santana Formation (Early Cretaceous, Aptian-Albian) Ceará, Brazil.
Classification
Pterosauria Pterodactyloidea Azhdarchoidea
Further Reading
Kellner A. W. A. and Campos D. A., 2002, The function of the cranial crest and jaws of a unique pterosaur from the early Cretaceous of Brazil. Science. vol. 297, no. 5580 19 July 2002, pp. 389-392.

Provelosaurus americanus

Originally described as a South American member of the genus Pareiasaurus, it was reassigned to the genus Provelosaurus by Lee in 1997 as it shows more affinities with the south African dwarf pareiasaurs (Anthodon, Nanoparia, Pumiliopareia) than with Pareiasaurus.

Name
Provelosaurus americanus
Authority
(Araújo, 1985)
Size
Length: 1-2 m
Remains
Nearly complete skull and postcranial elements of at least four individuals.
Age and Distribution
Upper Permian Rio do Rasto Formation, Paraná Basin, Rio Grande do Sula, Brazil.
Classification
Anapsida Hallucicrania Pareiasauria
Further Reading
Araujo, D. C. F., 1985, Sobre Pareiasaurus americanus sp. nov., do Permiano Superior do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. I-Diagnose Especifica: Annais Academia Brasil, Ciences, v. 57, n. 1, p. 63-66.
Synonyms
Pareiasaurus americanus Araújo, 1985

Thursday, 28 November 2013

Tapejara

Tapejara is a toothless crested pterosaur from the Early Cretaceous of Brazil. There were originally 3 species assigned to the genus, but today, only one species is recognized, T. wellnhoferi. The species T. imperator was transferred to the genus Tupandactylus, while the species T. navigans is waiting to receive a new generic name.

I
Name
Tapejara wellnhoferi
Authority
Kellner, 1989
Meaning of generic name
"Ancient being" — A name in Tupi Indian mythology
Size
Skull length: 250 mm, Wingspan: 1.5 m
Remains
Several partial skeletons.
Age and Distribution
Romualdo Member, Santana Formation (Early Cretaceous, Aptian-Albian) Ceará, Brazil.
Classification
Pterosauria Pterodactyloidea Azhdarchoidea Tapejaridae
Further Reading
Kellner A. W. A. 1989, A new edentate pterosaur of the Lower Cretaceous from the Araripe Basin, Northeast Brazil, Anais de Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, 61:439-446.

Wellnhofer, P. & Kellner, A. W. A. 1991, The skull of Tapejara wellnhoferi Kellner (Reptilia: Pterosauria) from the Lower Cretaceous Santana Formation of the Araripe Basin, Northeastern Brazil. Mitt. bayer. Staatsslg Paläont. hist. Geol.31, 89–106.
II
Name
"Tapejara" navigans
Authority
Frey, Martill & Buchy, 2003
Size
Skull length: 240 mm, Wingspan: ?1.5 m
Remains
Complete skull.
Age and Distribution
Nova Olinda Member, Crato Formation (Early Cretaceous, Aptian) Ceará, Brazil.
Classification
Pterosauria Pterodactyloidea Azhdarchoidea
Further Reading
Frey, E., Martill, D., M., and Buchy, C. C., 2003, A new species of tapejarid pterosaur with soft tissue head crest: In: Evolution and Palaeobiology of Pterosaurs, edited by Buffetaut, E., and Mazin, J.-M., Geological Society Special Publication, n. 217, p. 65-72.
Synonyms
Ingridia navigans (Frey, Martill & Buchy, 2003) Unwin and Martill, 2007
Images by Nobu Tamura (click to enlarge):
Tapejara wellnhoferi:
"Tapejara" navigans/Tupandactylus navigans:
Confer also
Tupandactylus imperator

Ornithocheirus

The name Ornithocheirus ("Bird hand") was coined by paleontologist Harry G. Seeley in 1869 to describe a number of pterosaurs fragmentary bones found in the Early Cretaceous Cambridge Greensand, England. He placed the different pieces up to 28 species of Ornithocheirus. Since then, the genus has become a terrible wastebasket taxon with over 40 species described from fragmentary fossils from the Early Cretaceous of Europe (England, France, Czech Republic) and South America (Brazil).

To add to the confusion, several species were transfered to a number of different genera including Criorhynchus, Coloborhynchus, Lonchodectes, Anhanghera and Tropeognathus. At the end, it is possible that none of the numerous species of Ornithocheirus is valid. A generic portrait of Ornithocheirus described it as a medium to large size pterosaur with a wingspan of 4 to meters. characterized by a long narrow and toothed jaws with a crest on top of the anterior portion of the snout.


Name
Ornithocheirus simus, mesembrinus
Authority
simus (Seeley, 1869)
mesembrinus (Wellnhofer, 1987)
Meaning of generic name
Bird Hand
Size
Wingspan: 2.5 m
Remains
Several jaw fragments, fragmentary skeletons and isolated bones and teeth.
Age and Distribution
Upper Cretaceous Greensand Formation (Cenomanian), Cambridge, England.

Upper Cretaceous Santana Formation (Cenomanian), Brazil.
Classification
Pterosauria Pterodactyloidea Ornithocheiridae
Further Reading
Unwin, David M. (2006). The Pterosaurs: From Deep Time. New York: Pi Press. pp. 246.
Image by Nobu Tamura (click to enlarge):
Ornithocheirus simus:

Sacisaurus agudoensis

Based on a few fragmentary remains, Sacisaurus was apparently a smaller relative of the polish Silesaurus. This little beaked herbivore was a precursor of the ornithischian dinosaur.

Name
Sacisaurus agudoensis
Authority
Ferigolo and Langer, 2007
Meaning of generic name
Saci (a fabled entity of Brazilian lore that possesses a single leg) lizard
Meaning of specific name
From Agudo, the town where the material was found
Size
Length: 1.5 m
Remains
Holotype (MCN PV10041): Left dentary

Referred specimens: Dentaries, skull fragments, right scapula, partial hindlimb and sacrum, isolated vertebrae.
Age and Distribution
Horizon: Caturrita Formation, Upper Triassic (latest Carnian-early Norian).

Locality: Aguda, Rio Grande del Sul, South Brazil
Classification
Dinosauromorpha Dinosauriformes
Further Reading
J. Ferigolo and M. C. Langer. 2007. A Late Triassic dinosauriform from south Brazil and the origin of the ornithischian predentary bone. Historical Biology 19(1):23-33
Image by Nobu Tamura (click to enlarge)
Sacisaurus agudoensis:

Ludodactylus sibbicki

The specific name of this large pterosaur honors famous paleoartist John Sibbick. Ludodactylus was a crested ornithocheirid from the Early Cretaceous of Brazil, known from a single nearly complete skull missing the distal end of the crest. It was preserved with a leaf between its mandibles thus its nickname, the "tree-biter" and on the same slab that contain the fossils of the fish Dastilbe. The generic name refered to the fact that the animal resembles the inacurrate popular depiction of toy Pteranodon with teeth (Pteranodon was crested but toothless). It may turn out that Ludactylus is the same animal than Brasileodactylus.

Name
Ludodactylus sibbicki
Authority
Frey, Martill & Buchy, 2003
Meaning of generic name
Toy Finger

[When a name ends in "finger" / "dactylus" it usually is short for "wing finger" = "pterodactylus"]
Size
Wingspan: 4 m, Skull length: 660 mm
Remains
Holotype (SMNK PAL 3828) : Nearly complete skull.
Age and Distribution
Crato Formation (Early Cretaceous, Aptian) Chapada do Araripe region, Ceará, Brazil.
Classification
Pterosauria Pterodactyloidea Ornithocheiroidea Ornithocheirididae
Further Reading
Frey E., Martill D. M. and Buchy C.-C., 2003, A new crested Ornithocheirid from the Lower Cretaceous of north-eastern Brazil and the unusual death of an unusual pterosaur: In: Evolution and Palaeobiology of Pterosaurs, edited by Buffetaut, E., and Mazin, J.-M., Geological Society Special Publication, n. 217, p. 55-63.

Lonchodectes compressirostris

Lonchodectes (meaning “lance biter”) is a disputed ornithocheirid and is possibly part of a family called the azhdarchid’s. This group contains one of the largest pterosaurs ever to have been found, Arambourgiana and includes the weirdest of all pterosaurs, Tapejara and Tupuxuara. Lonchodectes had smaller teeth than other ornithocheirids, this is how it was characterized as a different species of ornithocheirid.

Fossils of Lonchodectes are extremely rare but fragmentary remains have been discovered in the Cambridge Greensand formation. Lonchodectes remains have also been discovered in Hastings sands of Sussex. The remains of Lonchodectes discovered in this region shows that the family were well established. It is possible that the family of Lonchodectes became extinct somewhere around the early Late Cretaceous, probably the Cenomanian Stage.


Name
Lonchodectes compressirostris
Authority
Hooley, 1914
Meaning of generic name
Lance Biter
Meaning of specific name
the squeeze beak
Size
Wingspan: 2 m
Remains
Fragmentary remains, include several teeth, isolated and associated bones
Age and Distribution
Lower Cretaceous Greensand Formation (Albian), Cambridge, England.

Lower Cretaceous Santana Formation (Cenomanian), Brazil.
Classification
Pterosauria Pterodactyloidea Azhdarchoidea? Lonchodectidae
Further Reading
Hooley, R.W. (1914). On the Ornithosaurian genus Ornithocheirus with a review of the specimens from the Cambridge Greensand in the Sedgwick Museum, Cambridge. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 8, 78:529-557

Unwin, D.M., Lü, J., and Bakhurina, N.N. (2000). On the systematic and stratigraphic significance of pterosaurs from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation (Jehol Group) of Liaoning, China. Mitteilungen Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Geowissenschaftliche Reihe 3:181–206.

Irritator challengeri

The fossil consisting of the posterior part of the skull was badly damaged and artificially lengthened with plaster to make it look like more complete by amateur fossil hunters, thus the name. The fossil Angaturama limai from the same formation and consisting of the anterior portion of the skull curiously complementary to the Irritator fossil is probably a synonym and may even belong to the same original specimen. This spinosaurid from the Early Cretaceous of Brazil, related to the North African Spinosaurus but much smaller, was characterized by an unusually narrow skull.

Name
Irritator challengeri
Authority
Martill, Cruikshank, Frey, Small & Clarke, 1996
Meaning of generic name
Irritator
[Meaning of specific name
of "Challenger" or "of a challenger"
Meaning - possibly - of name
Posing an irritating challenge]
Size
Length: 7-8 m
Remains
Partial skull
Age and Distribution
Romualdo Member of the Santana Formation (Albian), Chapada do Araripe, northeastern Brazil. .
Classification
Dinosauria Saurischia Theropoda Spinosauroidea Spinosauridae
Further Reading
D. M. Martill, A. R. I. Cruickshank, E. Frey, P. G. Small, and M. Clarke. 1996. A new crested maniraptoran dinosaur from the Santana Formation (Lower Cretaceous) of Brazil. Journal of the Geological Society, London 153:5-8.

Sues, H.-D., Frey, E., Martill, D. M., and Scott, D. M., 2002, Irritator challengeri, a spinosaurid (Dinosauria: theropoda) from the Lower Cretaceous of Brazil: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 22, n. 3, p. 535-547.
Synonyms
Angaturama limai Kellner and Campos, 1996
Image by Nobu Tamura (click to enlarge)
Irritator challengeri:

Coloborhynchus clavirostris

Coloborhynchus as like many pterosaurs had an elongated skull. Crammed full of sharp pointed teeth, it also had smaller teeth protruding forward from the front of the jaw, this probably helped to hold the pterosaurs prey so that it could transport the fish further towards the throat.

Coloborhynchus had a small crest protruding from the snout region of the skull. Coloborhynchus has been found in the lower Cretaceous and from localities in Europe, South America and North America, multiple species have been described. Coloborhynchus is known mostly from fragmentary remains, including sections of the skull and teeth. Coloborhynchus remains have been found from the lower Cretaceous period, Albian stage of the Cambridge Greensand of England.


Name
Coloborhynchus clavirostris
Authority
clavirostris (Owen 1874) - BMNH:Holotype
araripensis (Veldmeijer 2003)
spielbergi (Veldmeijer 2003)
piscator (Veldmeijer 2003)
Meaning of generic name
Maimed Beak
Meaning of specific name
Key Snout
Size
Wingspan: 3 m
Remains
Fragmentary remains, include several teeth, isolated and associated bones, skulls and partial skeleton
Age and Distribution
Lower Cretaceous Greensand Formation (Albian), Cambridge, England.

Lower Cretaceous Santana Formation (Cenomanian), Brazil.
Classification
Pterosauria Pterodactyloidea Ornithocheiroidea Ornithocheiridae
Further Reading
A.J. Veldmeijer, H.J.M. Meijer and M. Signore. Coloborhynchus from the Lower Cretaceous Santana Formation, Brazil (Pterosauria, Pterodactyloidea, Anhangueridae); an update. Journal of vertebrate palaeontology, 3, 2, (2006)

Cearadactylus atrox

This aberrant member of the Ctenochasmatid pterosaurs had very sharp and long front teeth probably used to catch fish. It is known from a single incomplete skull missing the back portion, from the early Cretaceous of Brazil. A second species, C. ligabuei has been described in 1993 by Dalla Vecchia from the same Santana Formation, but further study by Unwin (2002) found it had nothing to do with Cearadactylus and placed it among the ornithocheirids (genus Anhanguera).

Name
Cearadactylus atrox
Authority
Leonardi & Borgomanero, 1985
Meaning of generic name
Ceará finger.

[When a name ends in "finger" / "dactylus" it usually is short for "wing finger" = "pterodactylus"]
Size
Skull length: 57 cm, Wingspan: ? 4-5 m
Remains
Single incomplete skull and lower jaw.
Age and Distribution
Santana Formation, Araripe Group (Early Cretaceous, Albian), Araripe plateau, Ceará, Northeastern Brazil.
Classification
Pterosauria Pterodactyloidea Ctenochasmatoidea Ctenochasmatidae Gnatosaurinae
Further Reading
Leonardi, G., and Borgomanero, G., 1985, Cearadactylus atrox nov. gen., nov. sp.: Novo Pterosauria (Pterodactyloidea) Da Chapada do Araripe, Ceara, Brasil: Brasil, D.N.P.M., Coletanea de Trabalhos Paleontologicos. Serie "Geologia", Brasilia, 27 (Secao de Paleontologia e Estratigragia, 2), p. 75-80.

Unwin, D. M. 2002, On the systematic relationships of Cearadactylus atrox, an enigmatic Early Cretaceous pterosaur from the Santana Formation of Brazil. Mitteilungen Museum für Naturkunde Berlin, Geowissenschaftlichen Reihe, 5, 239-263.

Candelaria barbouri

The youngest Owenettid and the only found so far outside Africa and Madagascar.

Name
Candelaria barbouri
Authority
Price, 1946
Meaning of generic name
From the name of the county were the fossils were found.
Size
Length: 40 cm
Remains
Three skulls.
Age and Distribution
Middle Triassic (Ladinian), Candelaria County, Rio Grande do Sul State, Santa Maria Formation of southern Brazil.
Classification
Anapsida Procolomorpha Procolophonoidea Owenettidae

Arthurdactylus conandoylei

Named after Sir Arthur Conan-Doyle, author of the novel the "Lost World" featuring prehistoric animals, this large pterosaur is known from an almost complete skeleton partially disarticulated lacking the skull, the neck and the sternum from the Early Cretaceous Crato Formation of Brazil. It had an unusually short body, realtively long wing fingers and slender hindlimbs.

Name
Arthurdactylus conandoylei
Authority
Frey and Martill, 1994
Meaning of generic name
Arthur's Finger

[When a name ends in "finger" / "dactylus" it usually is short for "wing finger" = "pterodactylus"]
Meaning of specific name
of Conan Doyle
Size
Wingspan: 4.6 m
Remains
Nearly complete postcranial skeleton.
Age and Distribution
Crato Formation (Early Cretaceous, Aptian), Ceará, Brazil.
Classification
Pterosauria Pterodactyloidea Ornithocheiroidea Ornithocheirididae
Further Reading
Frey, E. & Martill, D. M. 1994, A new Pterosaur from the Crato Formation (Lower Creatceous, Aptian) of Brazil. Neues Jahrbuch fur Geologie und Paläontology, Abhandlungen. 194, 379–412.

Anhanguera blittersdorffi

Anhanguera (meaning “old devil”) is closely related to Ornithocheirus and shares some similar attributes, it is also in the family Ornithocheiridae. The skull of Anhanguera is very similar to Ornithocheirus it has the same shape and general structure, its mouth is also crammed full with long sharp teeth. Remains from Anhanguera have been found in Brazil at the famous Santana formation. It was named after the town of Anhanguera in Brazil, where it was discovered.

The fossilised remains of Anhanguera were revolutionary in helping to end some debates on whether pterosaurs could walk on two legs or four. Anhanguera could walk on either two or four legs meaning it quadrupedal. Fossil remains of Anhanguera have been found in the U.K at the famous chalk of England‘s Cambridge Greensand, of the lower Cretaceous Cenomanian stage. Anhanguera also has been included, is to show the similar characteristics of pterosaurs that lived far away from one another in geological and geographical terms but shared an evolutionary similarity.


Name
Anhanguera blittersdorffi
Authority
blittersdorffi [Type] (Campos & Kellner 1985) santanae (Wellnhofer 1985) cuvieri & fittoni (2000, Unwin et al)
Meaning of generic name
Old Devil
Size
Wingspan: 4-5 m
Remains
Several skeletons, isolated teeth and bones, Sections of skull
Age and Distribution
Lower Cretaceous Greensand Formation (Albian), Cambridge, England.

Lower Cretaceous Santana Formation (Cenomanian), Brazil.
Classification
Pterosauria Pterodactyloidea Ornithocheiridae
Further Reading
Campos, D. A., and Kellner, A. W. A. (1985). "Panorama of the Flying Reptiles Study in Brazil and South America (Pterosauria/ Pterodactyloidea/ Anhangueridae)." Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 57(4):141–142 & 453-466
Image by Nobu Tamura (click to enlarge)
Anhanguera blittersdorffi:

What is a salvage blog?

Sometimes you know that a site will close down. Before it happens. And sometimes its author can do nothing about it.

This was my situation with the former MSN Group Antimodernism. I got a notice a few months in advance that it would close down in February 2009. Like all the other MSN Groups. Me No Like. I tried to salvage as much as possible - all compositions onto the first pages of musicalia, all debates salvaged in their turn from yahoo message boards or from netscape message boards onto the blog Assorted retorts from Yahoo Boards and Elsewhere (things have been added to it from youtube comment debates), all in German onto Auf Deutsch auf Antimodernism und später (adding the last because this became my German blog and I added much later), all in Danish and most in Swedish onto På Svenska og på Dansk på Antimodernism (which also continues), all in French onto En français sur Antimodernism (which does not continue, I have more than one other blog for French), all recipes onto Recipes from Home and Abroad (which again does continue), but I lost probably more than half of the threads. The blogs I have from there are of course self salvage blogs.

Of course, to make a salvage blog from Antimodernism without being me (the input from the thirty other group members was negligible and easy identifiable), one would have needed my permission. Some persons got it and did not use it.

And now, with the permission of Nobu Tamura, I am doing a salvage blog from the Palaeocritti site. It is an honour.

But since the material is not my own, the rights remain with the authors of that site, including but not limited to Nobu Tamura. I add only a little comments here and there. As you will by now know, from one of them about making Megapnosaurus a different genus from Coelophysis, I am a Creationist.

And yes, I do have a creationist blog as well - with mainly my own material.

Hans-Georg Lundahl
Nanterre UL
St Catherine Labouré
28-XI-2013

PS, the first category I make searchable here is by location. The material concerning South Africa is salvaged, and so is the very little there was from Zimbabwe. Only one of it was not on South Africa too. Tanzania, Brazil and Arizona are just getting started, and Arizona is clickable from the larger category United States. I am looking for other writers for the blog, to pick some countries as well as some states of US that I have not touched so far.

Vulcanodon karibaensis

Vulcanodon was a small primitive sauropod from the Early Jurassic of Africa. It was originally classified as a melanosaurid prosauropod based on sharp teeth associated with the skeleton but it was since then shown that the teeth belonged to an unidentified theropod that was scavenging on the remains of Vulcanodon.

Name
Vulcanodon karibaensis
Authority
Raath, 1972
Meaning of generic name
Volcano tooth
Meaning of specific name
From Lake Kariba
Size
Length: 6.5 m, Skull length: ?
Remains
Holotype (QG 24): postcranial skeleton (pelvis, hindlimb and foot, forearm, proximal section of the tail)
Age and Distribution
Horizon: Vulcanodon Beds Formation, Lower Jurassic (Hettangian).

Locality: Lake Kariba Island, Mashonaland, Zimbabwe.
Classification
Dinosauria Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Sauropoda Vulcanodontidae
Further Reading
M. A. Raath. 1972. Fossil vertebrate studies in Rhodesia: a new dinosaur (Reptilia: Saurischia) from near the Tria-Jurassic boundary. Arnoldia 5(31):1-37.
Image by Tobu Namura (click to enlarge)
Vulcanodon karibaensis:

Xenohystrix crassidens

This picture [rights not yet acquired for this blog, but see link while it lasts] is of Hystrix cristata, a living relative of the Miocene/Pliocene porcupine Xenohystrix crassidens. Both are in the family Hystricidae. Hystrix cristata is native to Africa and Italy, including Sicily.

Name
Xenohystrix crassidens
Authority
Greenwood 1955
Meaning of generic name
Foreign Hystrix
Meaning of specific name
with thick teeth
Size
60-90 cm. (1.97-2.95 feet)
Remains
Dentaries
Age and Distribution
Miocene, Ma West Margin site (5.7 - 5.2 million years ago), Ethiopia

Pliocene Makapansgat (Members 3,4) 3.7 - 2.5 million years ago) South Africa,
Classification
Mammalia, Rodentia, Ctenohystrica, Hystricognathi, and Hystricidae
Further Reading
Leslea J. Hlusko. 2007. EARLIEST EVIDENCE FOR ATHENURUS AND XENOHYSTRIX (HYSTRICIDAE, RODENTIA) IN AFRICA, FROM THE LATE MIOCENE SITE OF LEMUDONGYO, KENYA. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History.

Nqwebasaurus thwazi

Name
Nqwebasaurus thwazi
Authority
de Klerk, Forster, Sampson, Chinsamy and Ross, 2000
Meaning of generic name
Named after the formation it was discovered. Kirkwood Formation, called 'Nqweba' in the native language of the Xhosa
Size
Body length: 90 cm?
Remains
Near complete skeleton including a fragmentary skull.
Age and Distribution
Horizon: Kirkwood Formation, Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous (Berriasian or Valanginian)

Locality: Eastern Cape Province, South Africa
Classification
Dinosauria Saurischia Theropoda Coelurosauria Compsognathidae
Further Reading
de Klerk, W.J.; Forster, C.A.; Sampson, S.D.; Chinsamy, A.; Ross, C.F. (2000). "A new coelurosaurian dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of South Africa". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 2 (20): 324–332.

Paranthodon africanus

Name
Paranthodon africanus
Authority
(Broom, 1912)
Meaning of generic name
"Beside Anthodon"
Meaning of specific name
From Africa
Remains
Holotype (BMNH 47338) : skull.
Age and Distribution
Horizon: Kirkwood Formation. Early Cretaceous (Berriasian–Valanginian)

Locality: Bushmans River, Woodbury Farm, Algoa Basin, Cape province, South Africa.
Classification
Dinosauria Ornithischia Stegosauria Stegosauridae.
Further Reading
P. M. Galton and W. P. Coombs. 1981. Paranthodon africanus (Broom), a stegosaurian dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of South Africa. Géobios 14(3):299-309.
Synonyms
Palaeoscincus africanus Broom, 1912; Paranthodon oweni Nopcsa 1929, Paranthodon owenii Nopcsa 1929

United States

  • Alabama
  • Alaska
  • Arizona
  • California
  • Colorado
  • Connecticut
  • Georgia
  • Illinois
  • Kansas
  • Louisiana
  • Maryland
  • Massachusetts
  • Montana
  • Nebraska
  • Nevada
  • New Jersey
  • New Mexico
  • North Carolina
  • North Dakota
  • Ohio
  • Oklahoma
  • Oregon
  • Pennsylvania
  • South Carolina
  • South Dakota
  • Texas
  • Utah
  • Virginia
  • Washington
  • West Virginia
  • Wyoming

Arizona

  • Black Prince Limestone Formation, Arizona, Upper Carboniferous (Westphalian A-B; Late Morrowan or earliest Derryan; Bashkirian)
    • cf Gnathorhiza serrata (Dipnoi Lepidosirenidae)
    • Ophiderpeton swisshelmense (Lepospondyli Aistopoda Ophiderpetontidae)
    • Arizonerpeton wellsi (Lepospondyli Nectridea) vertebrae
    • Ptyonius olisthmonaias (Lepospondyli Nectridea Urocordylidae)
    • Elfridia bulbidens (Lepospondyli Microsauria Gymnarthridae)
  • Tecovas Formation, Chinle Group, Texas & Arizona, Upper Triassic (Carnian)
    • Camposaurus arizonensis (Theropoda Coelophysoidea) nomen dubium
  • Chinle Formation, Arizona and New Mexico, Upper Triassic (Latest Carnian-Early Norian)
  • Note: Placerias Quarry is part of the Mesa Redondo Member
    • Lonchidion humblei (Elasmobranchi Polyacrodontidae) Mesa Redondo Member
    • Triodus moorei (Elasmobranchi Xenacanthidae) Mesa Redondo Member
    • Apachesaurus gregorii (Temnospondyli Metoposauridae) Petrified Forest Member, Mesa Redondo Member
    • Buettnerei perfecta (Temnospondyli Metoposauridae) Mesa Redondo Member
    • Tecovasaurus murryi (Diapsida) Mesa Redondo Member
    • Uatchitodon schneideri (Diapsida) Mesa Redondo Member
    • Vancleavea campi (Diapsida) Mesa Redondo Member, Petrified Forest Member
    • Trilophosaurus jacobsi (Trilophosauria) Mesa Redondo Member
    • Placerias hesternus (Synapsida Kannemeyeriidae) Mesa Redondo Member
    • Hesperosuchus agilis (Crocodylomorpha Sphenosuchia Sphenosuchidae)
    • Parrischia maccreai (Crocodylomorpha Sphenosuchia Sphenosuchidae) Mesa Redondo Member
    • Dromomeron gregorii (Dinosauromorph) Mesa Redondo Member
    • Shuvosaurus inexpectatus (Archosauria) Petrified Forest Member, Mesa Redondo Member
    • Revueltosaurus hunti (Archosauria) Mesa Redondo Member
    • Revueltosaurus callanderi (Archosauria) Petrified Forest Member
    • Postosuchus kirkpatricki (Rauisuchia) Mesa Redondo Member
    • Poposaurus gracilis (Poposauria) Mesa Redondo Member
    • Desmatosuchus spurensis (Aetosauria) Mesa Redondo Member
    • Acaenasuchus geoffreyi (Aetosauria) Mesa Redondo Member
    • Stagonolepis wellesi (Aetosauria) Mesa Redondo Member
    • Adamanasuchus eisenhardtae (Aetosauria) Mesa Redondo Member
    • Typothorax coccinarum (Aetosauria) Petrified Forest Member
    • Leptosuchus admanensis (Phytosauria) Mesa Redondo Member
    • Chindesaurus bryansmalli (Herrerasauria) Petrified Forest Member
  • Moenave Formation, Arizona, Lower Jurassic (Hettangian?)
    • Protosuchus richardsoni (Crocodylomorpha Protosuchia Protosuchidae)
  • Kayenta Formation, Lower Jurassic [Hettangian-Sinemurian-Plienbaschian]
  • Navajo Sandstone Formation, Glen Canyon Group, Lower Jurassic [Plienbaschian-Toarcian]
  • Turney Ranch Formation, Arizona, Lower-Upper Cretaceous [Albian-Cenomanian]

Brazil

  • Unlisted:
  • Santa Maria Formation, Rosario do Sul Group, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, Upper Triassic (Carnian)
  • Caturrita Formation, Rosario do Sul Group, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, Upper Triassic (Norian)
  • Lower Cretaceous, Brazil
    • Candidodon itapecuruense (Crocodylomorpha Notosuchia Candidodontidae)
    • Tapuiasaurus macedoi (Dinosauria Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Titanosauria)
  • Itapecuru Formation, Brazil, Lower-Upper Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian)
  • Santana Formation, Ceara state, Brazil, Lower-Upper Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian)
  • Alcantara Formation, Maranhao State, Brazil, Upper Cretaceous (Lower Cenomanian)
  • Adamantina Formation, Bauru Group, Brazil, Upper Cretaceous (Turonian-Santonian) or (Campanian-Maastrichtian)
    • Adamantinasuchus navae (Crocodylomorpha Notosuchia)
    • Mariliasuchus amarili (Crocodylomorpha Notosuchia Notosuchidae)
    • Sphagesaurus huenei (Crocodylomorpha Notosuchia Sphagesauridae)
    • Sphagesaurus montealtensis (Crocodylomorpha Notosuchia Sphagesauridae)
    • Armadillosuchus arrudai (Crocodylomorpha Notosuchia Sphagesauridae)
    • Baurusuchus pachecoi (Crocodylomorpha Sebecosuchia Baurusuchidae)
    • Baurusuchus salgadoensis (Crocodylomorpha Sebecosuchia Baurusuchidae)
    • Stratiotosuchus maxhechti (Crocodylomorpha Sebecosuchia Baurusuchidae)
    • Adamantisaurus mezzalirai (Sauropoda Macronaria Titanosauria)
    • Maxakalisaurus topai (Sauropoda Macronaria Titanosauria Titanosauridae)
    • Gondwanatitan faustoi (Sauropoda Macronaria Titanosauria Saltasauridae)
  • Marilia Formation, Bauru Group, Minas Gerais, Brazil, Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
    • Itasuchus jesuinoi (Crocodylomorpha Itasuchidae)
    • Uberabatitan ribeiroi (Sauropoda Macronaria Titanosauria)
    • Baurutitan britoi (Sauropoda Macronaria Titanosauria)
    • Trigonosaurus pricei (Sauropoda Macronaria Titanosauria)
  • Irati Formation, Brazil

Tanzania

  • Ruhuhu Valley, Tanzania (eq. to Cistecephalus zone), Upper Permian (Wuchiapingian)
    • Tangasaurus mennelli (Eosuchia Tangasauridae)
    • Kingoria nowacki (Therapsid Dicynodonta Diictodonta Kingoriidae) Tanzania
    • Sycosaurus kingoriensis (Therapsid Gorgonopsida Gorgonopsidae Rubidgeinae) Tanzania
    • Sauroctonus parringtoni (Therapsid Gorgonopsida Gorgonopsidae)
  • Manda Beds Formation, Tanzania, Middle Triassic (Anisian)
    • Asilisaurus kongwe (Dinosauriformes Silesauridae)
  • Middle Saurian Bed Formation, Tendaguru Group, Tanzania, Upper Jurassic (Upper Kimmeridgian)
    • Tendaguripterus recki (Pterosauria ?Pterodactyloidea)
    • Kentrosaurus aethiopicus (Stegosauria Kentrosauridae)
    • Dryosaurus lettowvorbecki (Ornithopoda Iguanodontia Dryosauridae)
    • Dicraeosaurus hansemanni (Sauropoda Dicraeosauridae)
    • Giraffatitan brancai (Sauropoda Macronaria Brachiosauridae)
    • Elaphrosaurus bambergi (Theropoda Ceratosauria)
    • Allosaurus tendagurensis (Theropoda Carnosauria Allosauridae)
  • Upper Saurian Bed formation, Tendaguru Group, Tanzania, Upper Jurassic (Lower Tithonian)
    • Dicraeosaurus sattleri (Sauropoda Diplodocoidea Dicraeosauridae)
    • Australodocus bohetii (Sauropoda Diplodocoidea Diplodocidae)
    • Tornieria africana (Sauropoda Diplodocoidea Diplodocidae)
    • Tornieria gracilis (Sauropoda Diplodocoidea Diplodocidae)
    • Janenschia robusta (Sauropoda Macronaria Titanosauria)
  • Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, Plio-Pleistocene
    • Crocodylus anthropophagus (Crocodylomorpha Eusuchia Crocodylia Crocodylidae)

Zimbabwe

Eucnemesaurus fortis

The remains were found and described by Van Hoepen in 1920. Eucnemesaurus was described in 1985 as a theropod dinosaur called Aliwalia rex until 2006 a re-evaluation of the material determined Eucnemesaurus fortis as valid.

Name
Eucnemesaurus fortis
Authority
Van Hoepen, 1920
Meaning of generic name
Greek "Good Tibia Lizard" named after the robustness of the tibiae
Meaning of specific name
From latin meaning Strong
Size
Body Length: 36 ft (11 m)
Remains
Holotype: TM 119, a partial (fragmentary) skeleton consisting of vertebrae, pelvic remains and limb elements
Age and Distribution
Horizon: Lower Elliot Formation, Upper Triassic (Late Carnian-Early Norian)

Locality: Farm Zonderhout, Slabberts district, Orange Free State, South Africa.
Classification
Dinosauria Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Prosauropoda Riojasauridae
Further Reading
E. C. N. van Hoepen (1920). "Contributions to the knowledge of the reptiles of the Karroo Formation. 6. Further dinosaurian material in the Transvaal Museum", Annals of the Transvaal Museum 7(2): 93-141

Yates, A.M. (2006). "Solving a dinosaurian puzzle: the identity of Aliwalia rex Galton". Historical Biology, 1–31, iFirst article
Synonyms
Aliwalia rex, Galton 1985

Litargosuchus leptorhynchus

This small and slender sphenosuchian shows adaptation for a cursorial habit. It is known from a single partial skeleton of a possible juvenile.

Name
Litargosuchus leptorhynchus
Authority
Clark & Sues, 2002
Meaning of generic name
From Greek litargos, running fast, and Greek soukhos, crocodile
Meaning of specific name
From Greek leptos, thin, delicate, and Greek rhynchos , snout, muzzle
Size
Skull length: , Length:
Remains
Holotype (BP/1/5237): skull, mandible and much of the postcranial skeleton, first identified as Pedeticosaurus sp. by Gow & Kitching (1988).
Age and Distribution
Horizon: Upper Elliot Formation (Stormberg Group). Early Jurassic

Locality: farm Eagles Crag, Barkley East, South Africa
Classification
Archosauromorpha Crurotarsi Paracrocodylomorpha Sphenosuchia Sphenosuchidae
Further Reading
Clark, J. M., and Sues, H.-D., 2002. Two new basal crocodylomorph archosaurs from the Lower Jurassic and the monophyly of the sphenosuchia: In: Archosaurian anatomy and palaeontology. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, v. 136, p. 77-95.
Synonyms
Pedeticosaurus sp. Gow & Kitching, 1988

Abrictosaurus consors

When originally described as a species of Lycorhinus, the holotype fossil was thought to belong to a female because of the lack of tusk (thus the species name 'consors'). Richard Thulborn also thought that the animal had aestivation cycles. Hopson who did not believe in this theory renamed the genus Abrictosaurus (wakeful lizard).

Name
Abrictosaurus consors
Authority
(Thulborn, 1974)
Meaning of generic name
"Wakeful lizard".
Meaning of specific name
spouse.
Size
Body length: 1.2 m, Skull length: ?
Remains
Holotype (UCL B54): partial skull and skeleton

Referred specimens: UCL A100 (fragmentary skull from S. Africa, holotype of Lycorhinus angustidens)
Age and Distribution
Horizon: Upper Elliot Formation. Early Jurassic (Hettangian-Sinemurian)

Locality: Noosi, Qacha's Nek District , Lesotho. Also, Cape province, South Africa.
Classification
Dinosauria Ornithischia Heterodontosauridae
Further Reading
R. A. Thulborn. 1974. A new heterodontosaurid dinosaur (Reptilia: Ornithischia) from the Upper Triassic red beds of Lesotho. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 55:151-175.

J. A. Hopson. 1975. On the generic separation of the ornithischian dinosaurs Lycorhinus and Heterodontosaurus from the Stormberg Series (Upper Triassic) of South Africa. South African Journal of Science 71:302-305.
Synonyms
Lycorhinus consors Thulborn, 1974; Lycorhinus angustidens Thulborn, 1970

Heterodontosaurus tucki

A study of a tiny little skull of a juvenile Heterodontosaurus discovered in a museum drawer has indicated that this animal was probably omnivorous, feeding both on plants and small animals such as insects.

Name
Heterodontosaurus tucki
Authority
Crompton and Charig, 1962
Meaning of generic name
Different toothed lizard
Size
Length: 1 m
Remains
Complete articulated skeleton
Age and Distribution
Horizon: Upper Eliott Formation, Lower Jurassic (Hettangian)

Locality: District of Herschel, Cape province, South Africa
Classification
Dinosauria Ornithischia Heterodontosauridae
Further Reading
A. W. Crompton and A. J. Charig. 1962. A new ornithischian from the Upper Triassic of South Africa. Nature 196:1074-1077

R. J. Butler, L. B. Porro, and D. B. Norman. 2008. A juvenile skull of the primitive ornithischian dinosaur Heterodontosaurus tucki from the 'Stormberg' of southern Africa. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 28(3):700-711
Synonyms
Lycorhinus tucki
Images by Tobu Namura (click to enlarge)
"This is my third version of this animal. I've added a fur as the discovery of the related Tianyulong suggests it was covered with."
earlier version:

Lesothosaurus diagnosticus

Lesothosaurus was a small basal ornithischian dinosaur that lived during the Early Jurassic of Lesotho and South Africa. It has been suggested to be either a primitive thyreophorean or a basal member of the Neoornithischia (Ceratopsians, Ornithopods and Pachycephalosaurs). A recent ontogenic study by Knoll et al. (2010) indicates that Stormbergia might be the adult form of Lesothosaurus, which would then have reached a length of 2 meters.

Name
Lesothosaurus diagnosticus
Authority
Galton, 1978
Meaning of generic name
"Lesotho lizard".
Size
Body length: 1 m, Skull length: ?
Remains
Holotype (BMNH RU (UCL) B17): skull

Referred specimens: BMNH RU B 23 (juvenile skull), BMNH R 11956, BMNH R11004, BMNH R8501, SAM-PK-K400 , SAM-PK-K401, SAM-PK-1106, SAM-PK-K1105 (holotype of Stormbergia dangershoeki); BMNH R11000 (Stormbergia dangershoeki), BP/1/4885 (Stormbergia dangershoeki)
Age and Distribution
Horizon: Upper Elliot Formation. Early Jurassic (Hettangian-Sinemurian)

Locality: north flank, Likhoele Mountain, Mafetang district, Lesotho.
Classification
Dinosauria Ornithischia Lesothosauridae
Further Reading
P. M. Galton. 1978. Fabrosauridae, the basal family of ornithischian dinosaurs (Reptilia: Ornithischia). Paläontologische Zeitschrift 52(1/2):138-159.

P. C. Sereno. 1991. Lesothosaurus, "fabrosaurids," and the early evolution of Ornithischia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 11(2):168-197

R. J. Butler. 2005. The 'fabrosaurid' ornithischian dinosaurs of the Upper Elliot Formation (Lower Jurassic) of South Africa and Lesotho. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 145(2):175-218.

F. Knoll, K. Padian, K.; and A. de Ricqles, 2010. Ontogenetic change and adult body size of the early ornithischian dinosaur Lesothosaurus diagnosticus: implications for basal ornithischian taxonomy. Gondwana Research
Synonyms
Stormbergia dangershoeki Butler, 2005

Massospondylus

Massospondylus was a prosauropod from the Early Jurassic of South Africa. It was depicted as quadrupedal but a 2007 study indicated that it was bipedal. Two species are recognized: M. carinatus and M. kaalae, both from South Africa. Prosauropods remains found in Arizona, Argentina and India have been attributed to Massospondylus but they belong to different genera.

I
Name
Massospondylus carinatus
Authority
Owen, 1854
Meaning of generic name
"Longer vertebra"
Size
Length: 4 m, Skull length:
Remains
Holotype: partial skeleton

Referred specimens: remains of some 80 individuals from juvenile to adults.
Age and Distribution
Horizon: Upper Elliot Formation, Clarence Formation; Zoutpansberg Member of the Bushveld Sandstone; Forest Sandstone. Lower Jurassic (Hettangien-Plienbaschian)

Locality: Orange Free State, Cape province, S. Africa; Transvaal, S. Africa; Leribe, Quthing, Lesotho; Matabeleland, North, Zimbabwe.
Classification
Dinosauria Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Prosauropoda Massospondylidae
Further Reading
R. Owen. 1854. Descriptive catalogue of the Fossil organic remains of Reptilia and Pisces contained in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. London 1-184.

J. Attridge, A. W. Crompton, and F. A. Jenkins, Jr. 1985. The southern African Liassic prosauropod Massospondylus discovered in North America. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 5(2):128-132
Synonyms
Plateosaurus carinatus (Owen, 1854) Paul, 1988; Leptospondylus capensis Owen, 1854 (nomen dubium); Pachyspondylus orpenii Owen, 1854 (nomen dubium); Hortalotarsus skirtopodus Seeley, 1894; Gyposaurus skirtopodus (Seeley, 1894); Thecodontosaurus skirtopodus (Seeley, 1894); Massospondylus browni Seeley, 1895; Thecodontosaurus browni (Seeley, 1895); Massospondylus harriesi Broom, 1911; Aetonyx palustris Broom, 1911; Gryponyx transvaalensis Broom, 1912 (nomen dubium); Aristosaurus erectus Hoepen, 1920; Gyposaurus erectus Hoepen, 1920; Dromicosaurus gracilis Hoepen, 1920; Gryponyx taylori Haughton, 1924 (nomen dubium); Massospondylus schwarzi Haughton, 1924 (nomen dubium); Thecodontosaurus dubius Haughton, 1924; Thecodontosaurus minor Haughton, 1924 non Haughton, 1918
Images by Tobu Namura (click to enlarge)
Massospondylus carinatus:
Juvenile Massospondylus carinatus:
II
Name
Massospondylus kaalae.
Authority
Barrett, 2009
Meaning of specific name
After Mrs Sheena Kaal, collections manager for the Karoo vertebrates at the Iziko South African Museum
Size
Length: 4 m, Skull length:

[Skull length, precisely, is not given!]
Remains
Holotype (SAM-PK-K1325): incomplete skull.

[Skull is all we have!]
Age and Distribution
Horizon: Upper Elliot Formation, Lower Jurassic (Sinemurian-Plienbaschian)

Locality: Herschel District, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.
Further Reading
Barrett, P. M. 2009. A new basal sauropodomorph dinosaur from the Upper Elliot Formation (Lower Jurassic) of South Africa. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 29 (4): 1032-1045

Aardonyx celestae

Aardonyx is a sauropodomorph transitional between the prosauropods and the early sauropods such as Melanorosaurus.It was habitually bipedal but could also rest on all four. Its long narrow skull did apparently not have fleshy cheeks. Aardonyx lived in the early Jurassic in what is now South Africa and could have reached a length of 6-7 m or more (the discovered fossils belong to at least two immature individuals).

Name
Aardonyx celestae
Authority
Yates, Bonnan, Neveling, Chimsamy and Blackbird, 2010
Meaning of generic name
from aard (Afrikaans for ‘Earth’) and onyx (Greek for ‘claw’)
Meaning of specific name
Honoring Celeste Yates who prepared many of the bones.
Size
Length: 6 m, Skull length: 40 cm
Remains
Holotype (BP/1/6254): rostral half of the left maxilla.

Referred specimens: A large number of disarticulated bones from the same locality, including skull elements, vertebrae, ribs and limb elements.
Age and Distribution
Horizon: Upper Elliott Formation, Lower Jurassic.

Locality: Marc’s Quarry bone bed on the farm Spion Kop 932, Senekal District, Free State, South Africa.
Classification
Dinosauria Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Sauropoda Anchisauria
Further Reading
Yates, A. M., Bonnan, M. F., Neveling, J., Chinsamy, A. and Blackbeard, M. G. 2010. A new transitional sauropodomorph dinosaur from the Early Jurassic of South Africa and the evolution of sauropod feeding and quadrupedalism. Proc. R. Soc. B. Published online before print Nov 11 2009. Abstract.
Image by Tobu Namura (click to enlarge)
Aardonyx celestae:

Megapnosaurus

Previously known as Syntarsus (the name was preoccupied by a beetle), Megapnosaurus was very similar to Coelophysis to the point that some have proposed to be the same genus. However, Megapnosaurus lived in the Early Jurassic, while Coelophysis is from the Late Triassic. Remains of several individuals have been found together indicating that it probably lived in pack. Two species have been described, M. rhodesiensis from South Africa and M. kayentakatae from Arizona. The latter had a pair of crests on its snout. Megapnosaurus remains have also been reported from the Lower Lufeng Formation of China.

I
Name
Megapnosaurus rhodesiensis
Authority
(Raath, 1969)
Meaning of generic name
"Big dead lizard".
Meaning of specific name
from Rhodesia.
Size
Body length:3 m, Skull length: ?
Remains
Holotype (QG/1): a partial skeleton.

Referred materials: remains of at least 30 individuals.
Age and Distribution
Horizon: Forest Sandstone Formation of Zimbabwe. Early Jurassic (Hettangian-Sinemurian). Also from the Upper Elliot Formation of S. Africa. Early Jurassic (Hettangian-Sinemurian)

Locality: Kwengula stream, Southcote Farm, Zimbabwe.
Classification
Dinosauria Saurischia Theropoda Coelophysoidea Coelophysidae
Further Reading
M. A. Raath. 1969. A new coelurosaurian dinosaur from the Forest Sandstone of Rhodesia. Arnoldia (Rhodesia) 4(28):1-254.
Synonyms
Syntarsus rhodesiensis (Raath, 1969); Coelophysis rhodesiensis (Raath, 1969)
II
Name
Megapnosaurus kayentakatae
Authority
(Rowe, 1989)
Meaning of specific name
To honor Dr Kathleen Smith ("Kayenta Kay"), the discoverer of the fossil.
Size
Body length:3 m, Skull length: ?

[Why ? on skull length? The skull is there at least in part from MNA V2623]
Remains
Holotype (MNA V2623): skull and partial postcranial skeleton.

Referred materials: remains of at least 16 individuals.
Age and Distribution
Horizon: Kayenta Formation. Early Jurassic (Sinemurian-Plienbaschian)

Locality: Rock Head, Willow Springs, Arizona, US.
Further Reading
T. Rowe. 1989. A new species of the theropod dinosaur Syntarsus from the Early Jurassic Kayenta Formation of Arizona. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 9(2):125-136.
Synonyms
Syntarsus kayentakatae Rowe, 1989; Coelophysis kayentakatae (Rowe, 1898)


Creationist remark: "Megapnosaurus was very similar to Coelophysis to the point that some have proposed to be the same genus. However, Megapnosaurus lived in the Early Jurassic, while Coelophysis is from the Late Triassic." = Evolutionists want to keep Coelophysis separate from "early" Jurassic. And as obviously Megapnosaurus separate from "late" Triassic.

Pumiliopareia pricei

Pumiliopareia (often referred to as Nanoparia) is the smallest known member of the pareiasaurs, measuring merely 1/5 of its largest relatives. Like the other dwarf pareiasaurs, its body was entirely covered with osteoderms.

Name
Pumiliopareia pricei
Authority
(Broom and Robinson, 1948)
Size
Length: 50 cm
Remains
Complete skeleton with osteoderms.
Age and Distribution
Upper Permian Cistecephalus zone, Karoo basin, South Africa.
Classification
Anapsida Hallucicrania Pareiasauria
Synonyms
Pareiasaurus pricei (Broom & Robinson, 1948), Nanoparia pricei Broom & Robinson, 1948
Image by Tobu Namura (click to enlarge)
Pumiliopareia pricei:

Anthodon serrarius

One small member of the pareiasaurs called dwarf pareiasaurs. Like the other members of this highly specialized herbivore group, the body was entirely shielded with osteoderms.

Name
Anthodon serrarius
Authority
Owen, 1876
Meaning of generic name
Flower tooth
Size
Length: 1 m
Remains
Holotype (BP/1/548): Partial skull and vertebrae.
Age and Distribution
Upper Permian Cistecephalus zone, Karoo basin, South Africa.
Classification
Anapsida Hallucicrania Pareiasauria
Synonyms
Propappus parvus Haughton, 1913, Pareiasaurus parvus (Haughton, 1913)

Pareiasuchus

The larger Pareiasuchus nasicornis is characterized by a heavily armored snout with a horn-like structure. It might have been ancestral to Pareiasuchus peringueyi.

I
Name
Pareiasuchus nasicornis
Authority
(Haughton and Boonstra, 1929)
Meaning of generic name
Crocodile cheek? Snake crococile?
Meaning of specific name
Nosehorn
Size
Length: 3 m
Remains
Several specimens including complete skull and postcranial elements. Osteoderms.
Age and Distribution
Upper Permian Lowermost Cistecephalus zone, Karoo basin, South Africa. Also Upper Luangwa Valley, Lowermost Cistecephalus zone, Zambia
Classification
Anapsida Hallucicrania Pareiasauria
Image by Tobu Namura (click to enlarge)
Pareiasuchus nasicornis:
II
Name
Pareiasuchus peringueyi
Authority
(Haughton and Boonstra, 1929)
Size
Length: 2.5 m
Remains
Nearly complete skeleton
Age and Distribution
Upper Permian Cistecephalus zone, Karoo basin, South Africa.
Further Reading
R. Broom and S. H. Haughton. 1913. On the Skeleton of a New Pareiasaurian (Pareiasuchus péringueyi gen. et sp. nov.). Annals of the South African Museum 12:17-25.
Synonyms
Pareiasaurus peringueyi Broom and Haughton, 1913, Pareiasaurus pulcher Broom, 1935

Milleretta rubidgei

Name
Milleretta rubidgei
Authority
(Broom, 1938) Broom, 1948
Meaning of generic name
Miller's little one
Meaning of specific name
[the one that belongs to Rubidge]
Size
Length: 60 cm
Remains
Complete skeletons
Age and Distribution
Cistecephalus zone, South Africa (Wuchiapingian)
Classification
Anapsida Parareptilia Millerettidae
Further Reading
C.E. Gow. 1972. The osteology and relationships of the Millerettidae (Reptilia: Cotylosauria). Journal of Zoology, London 167:219-264
Synonyms
Millerina rubidgei, Millerettoides platyceps, Millerettops kitchingi
Image by Tobu Namura (click to enlarge)
Milleretta rubidgei:

Kingoria nowacki

Name
Kingoria nowacki
Authority
(von Huene, 1942) Cox, 1959
Meaning of generic name
From the village of Kingori
Meaning of specific name
In honor of geologist E. Nowack
Size
Skull length: 15 cm Body Length: 60 cm
Remains
Several skulls and postcranial elements.
Age and Distribution
Horizon: Lower Bone-Bearing Series, Upper Permian (equivalent to Cistecephalus zone).

Locality: Ruhuhu Valley, Tanzania.
Classification
Anomonodontia Dicynodontia Diictodontia Kingoriidae
Further Reading
Cox, C. B., 1959. On the anatomy of a new dicynodont genus with evidence of the position of the tympanum. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 132: 32 1-367.
Synonyms
Dicynodon nowacki von Huene, 1942

Sycosaurus

The genus Sycosaurus contains at least three species, S. laticeps (the type species) from South Africa, S. kingoriensis and S. terror from Tanzania.

I
Name
Sycosaurus laticeps
Authority
Haughton, 1924
Meaning of generic name
Fig lizard
Size
Length: 1.2 m, Skull length: 24 cm.
Remains
Holotype (SAM 4022):

Referred specimens: BPI 126
Age and Distribution
Horizon: Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone, Beaufort Group, Upper Permian (Wuchiapingian).

Locality: South Africa.
Classification
Synapsida Therapsida Gorgonopsia Gorgonopsidae Rubidgeinae
Further Reading
Haughton, S. H., 1924, On some Gorgonopsian skulls in the collection of the South African Museum: Annals of the South African Museum, v. 12, p. 499-517.

Sigogneau, D., 1970. Revision Systematique des Gorgonopsiens Sud-Africains: Cahiers de Paleontologie, 414pp.

Gebauer E., 2007. Phylogeny and Evolution of the Gorgonopsia with a Special Reference to the Skull and Skeleton of GPIT/RE/7113, doctoral dissertation.
Synonyms
Leontosaurus vanderhorsti Broom & George, 1950, Sycosaurus vanderhorsti Sigogneau,1970
II
Name
Sycosaurus kingoriensis
Authority
von Huene, 1950
Size
Length: 2.5 m, Skull length: 34 cm
Remains
Holotype (GPIT/RE/7116): skull

Referred specimens: GPIT/RE/7117 (skull)
Age and Distribution
Horizon: Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone, Beaufort Group, Upper Permian (Wuchiapingian).

Locality: Ruhuhu Valley, Tanzania.

[a: is there not such a thing as localities, in plural?, b: Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone of Beaufort Group, Karoo Supergroup is a locality too!]
Further Reading
Huene, F. von, 1950, Die Theriodontier der ostafrikanischen Ruhuhu-Gebietes in der Tubinger Sammlung: Neües Jahrbuch fur Geologie und Palaontologie, Abhandlungen, v. 82, part 1, p. 47-136.

Sigogneau, D., 1970. & Gebauer E., 2007. Ut supra.
Synonyms
Lycaenops kingoriensis von Huene, 1950, Aelurognathus haughtoni von Huene, 1950, Leontocephalus haughtoni (von Huene, 1950) in Sigogneau, 1970
III
Name
Sycosaurus terror
Authority
(Maisch, 2002)
Size
Length: 2 m, Skull length: 30 cm.
Remains
Holotype (MZC 891):
Age and Distribution
Horizon: Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone, Beaufort Group, Upper Permian (Wuchiapingian).

Locality: Ruhuhu Valley, Tanzania.

[c: identic to under S. kingoriensis]
Further Reading
Maisch, M. W., 2002, Observations on Karoo and Gondwana vertebrates: Part 3: notes on the gorgonopsians from the Upper Permian fo Tanzania: Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Monatschefte, 2002, v. 4, p. 237-251.

Sigogneau, D., 1970. & Gebauer E., 2007. Ut supra.
Synonyms
Cephalicustriodus kingoriensis Parrington 1974, Ruhuhucerberus terror Maisch 2002

Lycaenops

A number of species of Lycaenops have been described. The best known is L. ornatus from South Africa, the type species for which an almost complete skeleton has been excavated. L. angusticeps, also from South Africa is characterized by a long and slender snout. L. quadrata (formerly Dixeya quadrata) from Malawi is known from an incomplete skull, L. sollasi is only from a snout. L. attenuatus (= Aelurognathus cf serratidens) is known from an extremely laterelly compressed skull.

Lycaenops was a medium sized mammal-like reptile, probably reaching lengths of 1.7 meter. In geological terms Lycaenops only lived for a short time span during the late Permian. Note on the images to the side the nicely pointed canine teeth, these teeth would have been ideal for stabbing or tearing the flesh of prey that it may have come up against.


I
Name
Lycaenops ornatus
Authority
Broom, 1925
Meaning of generic name
Wolf face
Size
Length: 1.7 m, Skull length: 29 cm
Remains
Holotype (AMNH 2240): Nearly complete skeleton

Referred specimens: BPI 260, BPI 334, RC 147, RC 148
Age and Distribution
Horizon: Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone, Beaufort Group, Upper Permian (Wuchiapingian).

Locality: South Africa.
Classification
Synapsida Therapsida Gorgonopsia Gorgonopsidae
Further Reading
Broom, R., 1925, On some new Carnivorus therapsids: Records of the Albany Museum, v. 3, p. 309-326.

Sigogneau, D., 1970. Revision Systematique des Gorgonopsiens Sud-Africains: Cahiers de Paleontologie, 414pp.

Gebauer E., 2007. Phylogeny and Evolution of the Gorgonopsia with a Special Reference to the Skull and Skeleton of GPIT/RE/7113, doctoral dissertation.
Images of L. ornatus by Tobu Namura (click to enlarge)
version a:
version b:
II
Name
Lycaenops angusticeps
Authority
(Broom, 1913)
Size
Length: 2 m, Skull length: 30 cm
Remains
Holotype (AMNH 5537):

Referred specimens: AMNH 5535
Age and Distribution
Horizon: Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone, Beaufort Group, Upper Permian (Wuchiapingian).

Locality: South Africa.
Classification
Synapsida Therapsida Gorgonopsia Gorgonopsidae
Further Reading
Broom, R., 1913, On a nearly perfect skull of a new species of the gorgonopsia: Annals of the South African Museum, v. 12, part 1, p. 8-10.

Sigogneau, D., 1970. & Gebauer E., 2007. As above.
Synonyms
Scymnognathus minor Broom, 1913, Lycaenoides angusticeps Broom, 1925, Scymnognathus minor Broom, 1913

Gorgonops torvus

The genus contains up to 6 species with only one being well established, G. torvus. The others five are G. capensis (=Scylacops capensis, S. bigendens), G. dixeyi (=Chiwetasaurus dixeyi), G. eupachygnathus (= Leptotrachelus eupachygnathus, Scymnosuchus whaitsi), G. kaiseri (=Pachyrhinos kaiseri), G. whaitsi (=Scymnognathus whaitsi) with uncertain to dubious validity due to the poorly preserved state of their fossils.

Name
Gorgonops torvus
Authority
Owen, 1876
Meaning of generic name
Gorgon face
Size
Length: 1.2 m , Skull length: 22 cm
Remains
Holotype (BMNH R 1647):

Referred specimens: AMNH 5515, BPI 277, BPI 290, BPI 386, BPI 385, SAM 2671 (Type of G. longifrons)
Age and Distribution
Horizon: Tropidostoma and/or Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone, Beaufort Group, Upper Permian (Wuchiapingian).

Locality: Mildenhalls, Fort Beaufort, South Africa.
Classification
Synapsida Therapsida Gorgonopsia Gorgonopsidae
Further Reading
R. Broom. 1913. A revision of the reptiles of the Karroo. Annals of the South African Museum 7(6):361-366.

Sigogneau, D., 1970. Revision Systematique des Gorgonopsiens Sud-Africains: Cahiers de Paleontologie, 414pp.

Gebauer E., 2007. Phylogeny and Evolution of the Gorgonopsia with a Special Reference to the Skull and Skeleton of GPIT/RE/7113, doctoral dissertation.
Synonyms
Gorgonops cf. whaitsi Sigogneau, 1970, Gorgonognathus longifrons Haughton, 1915, Gorgonops longifrons Haughton, 1915 in Sigogneau, 1970

Owenetta rubidgei

Name
Owenetta rubidgei
Authority
Broom, 1939
Size
Length: 25 cm
Remains
Several skulls
Age and Distribution
Permian Cistecephalus and Dicynodon Assemblage Zones of South Africa
Classification
Anapsida Procolomorpha Procolophonoidea Owenettidae
Further Reading
Reisz, R. R., and Laurin M., 1991, Owenetta and the origin of turtles: Nature, v. 349, p. 324-326

Tuesday, 26 November 2013

Rubidgea

Several species of Rubidgea has been described but they all turn out to be synonym or transferred to a different genus (ex: Broomicephalus), with only R. atrox remaining valid. However, in a 2007 study, E. Gebauer transferred the genera Dinogorgon and Tigrisaurus to Rubidgea, adding two new species, R. quinquemolaris (described on the Dinogorgon page) and R. pricei.

Name
Rubidgea atrox
Authority
Broom, 1948
Size
Length: 2.4 m, Skull length: 46 cm
Remains
Holotype (RC 13): skull

Referred specimens: BPI 248 (Type of R. platyrhina); BPI 246 (Type of R. majora)
Age and Distribution
Horizon: Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone, Beaufort Group, Upper Permian (Wuchiapingian).

Locality: South Africa.
Classification
Synapsida Therapsida Gorgonopsia Gorgonopsidae Rubidgeinae
Further Reading
Broom, R., 1948, A contribution to our knowledge of the vertebrates of the Karroo beds of south Africa: Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, v. 61, part 2, n. 21, p. 577-629.

Brink, A. S., and Kitching, J. W., 1953, Studes on new specimens of Gorgonopsia: Palaeontographica africana, v. 1, p. 1-28.

Sigogneau-Russell, D., 1989, Theriodontia I, Phthinosuchia, Biarmosuchia, Eotitanosuchia, Gorgonopsia: Handbuch der Palaoherpetologie, Teil 17 B/I, 127pp.

Gebauer E., 2007. Phylogeny and Evolution of the Gorgonopsia with a Special Reference to the Skull and Skeleton of GPIT/RE/7113, doctoral dissertation.
Synonyms
Rubidgea platyrhina Brink & Kitching, 1953, Rubidgea majora Brink & Kitching, 1953
Image by Nobu Tamura (click to enlarge)
Rubidgea atrox:

Dinogorgon

Dinogorgon is a poorly defined genus of saber-toothed gorgonopsids from South Africa and Tanzania. The type species, D. rubidgei, is only known from a fragment of snout and is undiagnosable making it a probable nomen dubium. The other two species are known from relatively well preserved skulls which are very similar in appearance to Rubidgea and it is possible that the two genera are in fact synonyms.

I Name
Dinogorgon rubidgei
Authority
Broom, 1936
Meaning of generic name
Terrible gorgon
Size
Skull length: 32 cm ,Length: 2 m?
Remains
Holotype (RC 1): snout
Age and Distribution
Horizon: Cistecephalus-Dicynodon assemblage zone, Beaufort group, Upper Permian (Wuchiapingian).

Type locality: Karoo basin, South Africa.
Classification
Synapsida Therapsida Gorgonopsia Gorgonopsidae Rubidgeinae
Further Reading
Broom, R., 1936, On some new genera and species of Karroo fossil Reptiles, with notes on some others: Annals of the Transvaal Museum, v. 18, part 4, p. 349-386.

Sigogneau, D., 1970. Revision Systematique des Gorgonopsiens Sud-Africains: Cahiers de Paleontologie, 414pp.

Gebauer E., 2007. Phylogeny and Evolution of the Gorgonopsia with a Special Reference to the Skull and Skeleton of GPIT/RE/7113, doctoral dissertation.
Image of D. rubidgei by Nobu Tamura (click to enlarge)
Dinogorgon rubidgei:
II Name
Dinogorgon quinquemolaris
Authority
von Huene, 1950
Size
Skull length: 41 cm ,Length: 2.2 m?
Remains
Holotype (GPIT/RE/3430): nearly complete skull

Referred specimen: RC 103 (nearly complete skull. Holotype of D. oudebergensis)
Age and Distribution
Horizon: Upper Permian

Locality: Tanzania and South Africa.
Classification
Synapsida Therapsida Gorgonopsia Gorgonopsidae Rubidgeinae
Further Reading
Huene, F. von, 1950. Die Theriodontier der ostafrikanischen Ruhuhu-Gebietes in der Tubinger Sammlung: Neües Jahrbuch fur Geologie und Palaontologie, Abhandlungen, v. 82, part 1, p. 47-136.

Sigogneau, D., 1970 and Gebauer E., 2007 as above.
Synonyms
Dinogorgon oudebergensis Brink & Kitching, 1953
III Name
Dinogorgon pricei
Authority
(Broom & George, 1950)
Size
Skull length: 32 cm ,Length: 1.7 m?
Remains
Holotype (BPI 225): incomplete skull
Age and Distribution
Horizon: Cistecephalus-Dicynodon assemblage zone, Beaufort group, Upper Permian (Wuchiapingian).

Type locality: Karoo basin, South Africa.
Classification
Synapsida Therapsida Gorgonopsia Gorgonopsidae Rubidgeinae
Further Reading
Broom, R., and George, M., 1950, Two new gorgonopsians genera from the Bernard Price collections: South African Journal of Science, v. 46, n. 6, p. 188-190.

Sigogneau, D., 1970 and Gebauer E., 2007 as above.
Synonyms
Tigrisaurus pricei Broom & George, 1950